Abdominal exploration - series 05/16/2012
Abdominal exploration - series Normal anatomy: The abdomen contains many vital organs: the stomach, the small intestine (jejunum and ileum), the large intestine (colon), the liver, the spleen, the gallbladder, the pancreas, the uterus, the fallopian tubes, the ovaries, the kidneys, the ureters, the bladder, and many blood vessels (arteries and veins). Indication: The surgical exploration of the abdomen, also called an exploratory laparotomy, may be recommended when there is abdominal disease from an unknown cause (to diagnose), or trauma to the abdomen (gunshot or stab-wounds, or "blunt trauma").
Abdominoplasty - series 01/29/2013
Abdominoplasty - series Indications: Too much fat can collect in the belly. In abdominoplasty, some of the fat is removed. Procedure, part 1: The surgeon will make a cut in the fold under the belly. This is the "bikini line." Skin is also cut around the belly button. A large area of fat and skin are then pulled away from the muscle. Procedure, part 2: The surgeon tightens the abdominal muscles in the belly. Procedure, part 3: The skin is then stretched downward.
Achalasia - series 01/20/2010
Achalasia - series Normal anatomy: The esophagus carries food from the mouth to the stomach. The lower esophageal sphincter is a muscular ring at the junction of the esophagus and the stomach. The lower esophageal sphincter relaxes when food from the esophagus enters the stomach. Indications: Achalasia is a disorder in which the lower esophageal sphincter does not relax when food passes down the esophagus to the stomach. As a result, the esophagus becomes distended and filled with food, and food passes into the stomach very slowly.
Adenoid removal - series 11/09/2012
Adenoid removal - series Normal anatomy: The adenoids (lymphatic tissue in the back of the throat), along with the tonsils, comprise the Waldeyer ring. Indications: Adenoidectomy may be recommended when enlarged adenoids are blocking the airway, which may be suspected if the child: snores excessively has trouble breathing through the nose (nasal obstruction) has episodes of not breathing during sleep (sleep apnea) Adenoidectomy may be recommended if the child has chronic ear infections that: interfere with child's education persist despite antibiotic treatment recur 5 or more times in a year recur 3 or more times a year during a 2-year period Adenoidectomy may be recommended if the child has chronic or repeated bouts of tonsillitis.
Alpha fetoprotein - series 09/12/2011
Alpha fetoprotein - series Indications: Alpha fetoprotein (AFP) is a protein produced by the liver and yolk sac of a fetus. AFP has no normal function in adults. The alpha fetoprotein test (AFP) is a blood test performed to measure, diagnose, or monitor fetal distress or fetal abnormalities. It can also detect some liver disorders and some cancers in adults. During pregnancy, this test, along with the examination of amniotic fluid (amniocentesis), can help detect fetal spinal bifida or other defects of the fetus' neural tube.
Amniocentesis - series 08/07/2012
Amniocentesis - series Indication: When you are about 15 weeks pregnant, your doctor may offer amniocentesis. Amniocentesis is a test that detects or rules out certain inherited disorders in a fetus. It also assesses lung maturity to see if the fetus can endure an early delivery. You can also find out the baby's gender. Doctors generally offer amniocentesis to women with an increased risk of having a baby with particular disorders, including those who: Will be 35 or older when they deliver.
Anal fissure - series 07/09/2012
Anal fissure - series Normal anatomy: The anus is a sphincter at the end of the rectum through which passes stool during defecation. The anal sphincter is a critical mechanism for control of fecal continence. Indication: Anal fissures are tears in the skin overlying the anal sphincter, usually due to increased tone of the anal sphincter muscles, and a failure of these muscle to relax. Anal fissures cause pain during defecation and bleeding from the anus. Incision: Most anal fissures can be treated successfully with conservative measures, which include stool softeners and warm soaks.
Animal bite - first aid - series 01/08/2012
Animal bite - first aid - series Procedure, part 1: To treat a minor bite, first wash your hands thoroughly with soap to avoid infection. Wash hands afterwards as well. If the bite is not bleeding severely, wash the wound thoroughly with mild soap and running water for 3 to 5 minutes. Then cover the bite with antibiotic ointment and a clean dressing. Procedure, part 2: If the bite is actively bleeding, apply direct pressure with a clean, dry cloth until the bleeding subsides. Elevate the area of the bite.
Ankle sprain - series 04/13/2013
Ankle sprain - series Normal anatomy: The ankle joint connects the foot with the leg. The ankle joint allows the foot to move upward and downward and in an inward and outward motion. Muscles, tendons, and ligaments surround the ankle providing the stability the ankle joint needs for walking and running. Type I ankle sprain: The most common way the ankle can be injured is by an ankle sprain. When an ankle is sprained ligaments on the ankle are either stretched, partially torn or completely torn.
Anterior cruciate ligament repair - series 08/14/2011
Anterior cruciate ligament repair - series Normal anatomy: The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is a ligament in the center of the knee that prevents the shin bone (tibia) from moving forward on the thigh bone (femur). Indications: If the ACL is torn, the knee joint may become unstable and affect the ability to perform work or athletic activities. Procedure, part 1: ACL reconstruction is surgery to replace the torn ACL ligament. There are several choices of tissue to use for the new ligament, including an autograft (tissue from the patient’s own body) or an allograft (tissue from a cadaver).