Avian influenza is flu infection in birds. The virus that causes the disease in birds can change (mutate) so it can spread to humans.
Bird flu; H5N1
Causes, incidence, and risk factors
The first avian influenza in humans was reported in Hong Kong in 1997. It was called avian influenza (H5N1). The outbreak was linked to chickens.
Since then there have been human cases of avian influenza A (H5N1) in Asia, Africa, Europe, Indonesia, Vietnam, the Pacific, and the near East. Hundreds of people have become sick with this virus. Up to half of the people who get this virus die from the illness.
The chance of a worldwide outbreak in humans goes up the more the avian flu virus spreads.
Your risk of getting the bird flu virus is higher if:
You work with poultry (such as farmers)
You travel to countries where the virus is present
You touch an infected bird
You eat raw or undercooked poultry meat, eggs, or blood from infected birds
Health care workers and people who live in the same house as people with bird flu may also be at higher risk of infection.
The avian flu virus (H5N1) lives in the environment for long periods of time. Infection may be spread just by touching surfaces that have he virus on them. Birds who were infected with this flu can give off the virus in their feces and saliva for as long as 10 days.
Symptoms of avian flu infection in humans depend on the strain of virus.
The H5N1 virus in humans causes typical flu-like symptoms, such as:
If you think you have been exposed to the virus, call your health care provider before your visit. This will give the staff a chance to take steps to protect themselves and other patients during your office visit.
There are tests for the avian flu but they are not widely available. One type of test can give results in about 4 hours.
Other tests may be done to look at how well your heart, kidneys, and liver are working.
Treatment varies based on your symptoms.
In general, treatment with the antiviral medication oseltamivir (Tamiflu) or zanamivir (Relenza) may make the disease less severe. You need to start taking the medicine within 48 hours after your symptoms start for it to work.
Oseltamivir may also be prescribed for persons who live in the same house people with avian flu. This may prevent them from getting the illness.
The virus that causes human avian flu is resistant to the antiviral medicines amantadine and rimantadine. These medicines should not be used in the case of an H5N1 outbreak occurs.
People with severe infection may need to be placed on a breathing machine. People infected with the virus also should be kept separate from non-infected people.
Doctors recommend that people get an influenza (flu) shot This may cut down the chance that the avian flu virus will mix with a human flu virus. This might create a new virus that may easily spread.
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has approved a vaccine to protect humans from the avian flu. This vaccine could be used if the current H5N1 virus starts spreading between people. The U.S. Federal Government keeps a stockpile of H5N1 vaccine.
The outlook depends on the type of avian flu virus and how bad the infection is. The disease can be fatal.
David C. Dugdale, III, MD, Professor of Medicine, Division of General Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Washington School of Medicine. Also reviewed by A.D.A.M. Health Solutions, Ebix, Inc., Editorial Team: David Zieve, MD, MHA, Bethanne Black, Stephanie Slon, and Nissi Wang.